;Coulomb's Law
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In 1785, Coulomb established the fundamental law of electric force between two stationary, charged particles. Experiments show that an electric force has the following properties:  


From these observations, we can express the magnitude of the electric force between the two charges as  
Where ke is a constant called the Coulomb constant. In his experiments, Coulomb was able to show that the value of the exponent of r was 2 to within an uncertainty of a few percent. Modern experiments have shown that the exponent is 2 to a precision of a few parts in 10^{9}.  
The Coulomb constant has a value that depends on the choice of units. The unit of charge in SI units is the coulomb (C).
The coulomb is defined in the terms of a unit called the ampere (A), where current equals the rate of flow of charge. When the current in a wire is 1 A, the amount of charge that flows past a given point in the wire in 1s is 1 C. The Coulomb constant k_{e} in SI units has the value 

The constant k_{e} is also written  
Where the constant is known as permittivity of free space and has the value  
Where the constant is known as permittivity of free space and has the value  
The smallest unit of charge known in nature is the charge on an electron or proton. The charge of an electron or proton has a magnitude 

e = 1.60219 x 10^{19}C


Charge and Mass of the Electron, Proton, and Neutron 
Particle

Charge (C)

Mass (kg)

Electron (e)

– 1.60219 x 10^{19}

9.1095 x 10^{31}

Proton (p)

+ 1.60219 x 10^{19}

1.67261 x 10^{27}

Neutron (n)

0

1.67492 x 10^{27}
