ravi trivedi posted on September 28, 2011 |



Article No. :- 1

Date:- 28-9-2011

Time:- 1:00 PM



Hello to all,

Welcome to the “WORLD OF KNOWLEDGE”……………………………


With the help of this article ,

 I am trying to share a knowledge on above mentioned subject.No figures & images provided in this article. If you are interested in figures & images about this article, you can send e-mail or sms to me. I always welcome your questions. my e-mail id & cell no. is given bellow.please send your questions about this article via e-mail or sms only. I will try to contact you as soon as possible.

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What is Supercomputer?

supercomputer, a state-of-the-art, extremely powerful computer capable of manipulating massive amounts of data in a relatively short time. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation, among them meteorology, animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research and weapon simulation, and petroleum exploration. There are two approaches to the design of supercomputers. One, called massively parallel processing (MPP), is to chain together thousands of commercially available microprocessors utilizing parallel processing techniques. A variant of this, called a Beowulf cluster, or cluster computing, employs large numbers of personal computers interconnected by a local area network and running programs written for parallel processing. The other approach, called vector processing, is to develop specialized hardware to solve complex calculations. This technique was employed (2002) in the Earth Simulator, a Japanese supercomputer with 640 nodes composed of 5104 specialized processors to execute 35.6 trillion mathematical operations per second; it is used to analyze earthquake and weather patterns and climate change, including global warming. Currently the fastest supercomputer is the Japanese K Computer, at the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, which can perform more than 8 quadrillion calculations per second. It uses 68,544 eight-core processors. The fastest American supercomputer is the Cray Jaguar, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; it utilizes 37,376 six-core and 7,832 quad-core processors to execute as many 2.33 quadrillion mathematical operations per second. Many high-performance computers use water and refrigeration for cooling, but some are air-cooled and use no more power than the average home. In 2003 scientists at Virginia Tech assembled a relatively low-cost supercomputer using 1,100 dual-processor Apple Macintoshes; it was ranked at the time as the third fastest machine in the world.




Tianhe-1, meaning Milky Way, achieved a computing speed of 2,570 trillion calculations per second, earning it the number one spot in the Top 500  survey of supercomputers.

The Jaguar computer at a US government facility in Tennessee, which had held the top spot, was ranked second with a speed of 1,750 trillion calculations per second.

Tianhe-1 does its warp-speed "thinking" at the National Centre for Supercomputing in the northern port city of Tianjin -- using mostly chips designed by US companies.

Another Chinese system, the Nebulae machine at the National Supercomputing Centre in the southern city of Shenzhen, came in third.

super computer is the latest & fastest computer developed by the scientists.

they are invented in 1960s.

for details of more type of supercomputer of different countries , please wait for my upcoming article.

At the end of this article,

there are only few words to say,


More Reference on this article you can read following books…………….

1)      TITLE:-  Promoting high performance computing and communications

AUTHOR:-  United States Congressional Budget Office







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